Math colloquium

**Speaker**: **Sigurður
Freyr Hafstein****, University of Iceland**

**Title: **Lyapunov functions for stochastic differential equations and their
computation

Room:
HB5 (Háskólabíó)

Time: Friday 15^{th} November, 11:40hrs

#### Abstract:

Attractors and their basins of attraction in deterministic dynamical systems are most commonly studied using the Lyapunov stability theory. Its centerpiece is the Lyapunov function, which is an energy-like function from the state-space that is decreasing along all solution trajectories.

The Lyapunov stability theory for stochastic differential equations is much less developed and, in particular, numerical methods for the construction of Lyapunov functions for such systems are few and far between. We discuss the general problem and present some novel numerical methods.

Math colloquium

**Speaker**: **Iman
Mehrabinezhad, University of Iceland**

**Title: **A new method for computation and verification of contraction
metrics

Room: HB5 (Háskólabíó)

Time: Friday 8^{th} November, 11:40hrs

#### Abstract:

The determination of exponentially stable equilibria and their basin of attraction for a dynamical system given by a general autonomous ordinary differential equation can be achieved by means of a contraction metric. A contraction metric is a Riemannian metric with respect to which the distance between adjacent solutions decreases as time increases.

The Riemannian metric can be expressed by a matrix-valued function on the phase space.

The determination of a contraction metric can be achieved by approximately solving a matrix-valued partial differential equation by mesh-free collocation using Radial Basis Functions (RBF).

Then, we combine the RBF method (to compute a contraction metric) with the CPA method to rigorously verify it. In particular, the computed contraction metric is interpolated by a continuous piecewise affine (CPA) metric at the vertices of a fixed triangulation, and by checking finitely many inequalities, we can verify that the interpolation is a contraction metric. Moreover, we show that, using sufficiently dense collocation points and a sufficiently fine triangulation, we always succeed with the construction and verification.

This presentation is based on a joint work with Prof. Sigurdur Hafstein (University of Iceland), and Prof. Peter Giesl (University of Sussex, UK).

Math Phys seminar

### Speaker: Daniel Fernández Moreno, University of Iceland

### Title: The philosophy of emergent spacetime

Room: HB5 (Háskólabíó)

Time: Friday 18th October, 11:40hrs

Abstract:

One of the most startling observations in recent theoretical physics is that certain phenomena are better described as resulting from a higher dimensional spacetime. The gauge-gravity correspondence projects them into a surface infinitely far away. The existence of such a duality between two fully consistent physical theories reduces the number of spacetime dimensions to a mere choice, one that can be more or less useful depending on the physics we want to describe.

This observation brought forth the idea that Spacetime should be understood as an emergent property from quantum field theory. This is usually presented in abstract grounds, disconnected from its consequences on our theoretical perspective of fundamental physics. Consequences which challenge the basic intuitions from classical physics that are otherwise vastly useful in most situations. For this reason, as opposed to most seminars in the topic, this talk will ignore the structure of the reasoning and the mathematical rigor. Instead, I will present to you the topic of emergent Spacetime focused on gaining an intuitive feeling about the connection of such a seemingly abstract concept with the real world.

Math phys colloquium

#### Speaker: Danny Brattan, University of Genoa

#### Title: Hydrodynamical charge density wave description for transport in the strange metal phase of cuprates

Room: Naustið-Endurmenntun

Time: Wednesday 9th October, 11:00hrs

**Abstract:**

The mechanism controlling the exotic behavior of the transport properties in the strange metallic phase of high temperature superconductors is one of the main unresolved problems in condensed matter physics. I will discuss our recent paper (1909.07991) where we develop a framework for describing the hydrodynamics of charge density wave (CDW) order in a magnetic field (extending earlier theoretical developments) and where we determine the DC transport coefficients within this formalism. In this work we performed a complete characterization of the DC transport coefficients (including less common ones like transverse thermal conductivity and Nernst effect) of a single crystal of Bi-2201 close to optimal doping and we found complete self-consistent agreement of this data with the CDW model. This suggests CDW order may be sufficient to explain the unusual properties of the strange metal phase of the cuprates.

Math phys colloquium

**Speaker**: Emil Have, University of Edinburgh

**Title: **Newton-Cartan Submanifolds and Biophysical (Fluid) Membranes

Room L-201 Lögberg

Time: Tuesday 8^{th} October, 11:00hrs

#### Abstract:

Originally developed to provide a geometric foundation for
Newtonian gravity, Newton-Cartan geometry and its torsionful generalization
have recently experienced a revival of interest, particularly in the contexts
of non-AdS holography and various condensed matter problems — notably the
quantum Hall effect. In this talk, I will describe a general theory of
Newton-Cartan submanifolds. A covariant description of non-relativistic fluids
on surfaces is an important open problem with a wide range of applications in
for example biophysics. Recasting ‘elastic’ models, such as the Canham-Helfrich
bending energy, in a Newton-Cartan setting allows for a covariant notion of
non-relativistic time and provides the ideal starting point for a treatment of
Galilean fluids on extremal submanifolds using the technology of hydrostatic
partition functions.

Math colloquium

**Speaker**: **Henning Arnór
Úlfarsson, University of Reykjavík**

**Title: **Pattern avoidance in various domains

Room: HB5 (Háskólabíó)

Time: Friday 25^{th} October, 11:40hrs

#### Abstract:

When one searches the web for “pattern avoidance” most of the results are about pattern avoiding permutations and their variants, such as colored, partial, multi-, affine, signed, and poset permutations. However there are definitions and results about similar concepts in other objects, such as graphs and topological spaces. We will survey these examples of pattern avoidance as well as highlighting more recent variants, such as polyominoes, integer partitions and alternating sign matrices.

This talk will be accessible to any student who has walked past a room where discrete mathematics was being taught.

Math Phys seminar

**Speaker**: Jesús Zavala Franco, Háskóli Íslands and Javier Israel Reynoso
Córdoba, Universidad de Guanajuato

**Title: **The Boltzmann equation for a rarefied fluid in linear perturbation
theory

Room: HB5 (Háskólabíó)

Time: Friday 4^{th} October, 11:40hrs

#### Abstract:

Linear perturbation theory is the basis upon which we understand the initial growth of density perturbations in the early Universe. This theory has been developed and studied extensively in two extreme regimes: i) the fluid regime and ii) the collisionless regime. The former is applicable to the photon-baryon plasma, while the latter is commonly used to describe dark matter. There is however, a relevant class of dark matter models, known generically as self-interacting dark matter, where the Knudsen number is around 1, which lies in between these regimes. Linear perturbation theory in this regime remains essentially unexplored, requiring a full treatment of the Collisional Boltzmann equation. In this talk, we will present an overview of the problem and present our preliminary progress towards describing this regime.

Applications are invited for a postdoctoral position at the University of Iceland financed by The Icelandic Research Fund. The research project is called:

“Scaling limits of random enriched trees”

and is in the field of probabilistic combinatorics. The project includes studying scaling limits of random graphs, statistical mechanical models on random planar maps and related subjects. The application deadline is October 15, 2019, however applications will continue to be accepted until the position is filled.

We are looking for a candidate who has completed a PhD within the last 5 years or is close to defending a PhD thesis. Her/his specialization and interests should be in this area.

Applications should be sent directly by e-mail to sigurdur[at]hi.is, including a CV, list of publications or an abstract of a planned PhD thesis, a research statement and names and e-mail addresses of two referees, who have agreed to provide recommendation.

The appointment is for two years from the 1st of Novenber 2019, or otherwise according to agreement All applications will be answered.

For further information please contact:

Prof. Sigurdur Orn Stefansson (e-mail: sigurdur[at]hi.is)

**Speaker:
Björn Birnir, Center for Complex and Nonlinear Science at the
University of California at Santa Barbara (UCSB)**

**Title:
When can we expect the Greenland glacier to melt?**

Room: VR-II,V-258

Time: Tuesday 27nd August, 11:00hrs

#### Abstract:

It
was suggested by Rose (2005) that because of the migratory and
responsive nature of the capelin, a small pelagic fish that is key to
the ecology and fisheries of the North Atlantic, it can be viewed as
the “canary in the coalmine” to detect signals of
environmental changes in the Arctic Ocean. In this talk we will
combine analysis of data and extensive simulations of the migrations
of the capelin and its physiology to analyze the changes in the ocean
environment taking place over the last half-century. The
environmental data for the last thirty year is obtained from a
database called Copernicus, constructed by the European Union. Our
goals will be to understand and predict the migrations of the capelin
and its interactions with the ocean environment. We will explain how
these have changed over time and how they are likely to change in the
future. Then we will explain how our simulations can be compared with
data, with the aim of finding out the rate of the temperature changes
in the Arctic Ocean and when thresholds for major disruptions in
Arctic environments are likely to be reached. The recent changes in
the spawning routes of the capelin lead to a startling prediction.

Math Phys seminar

**Speaker: Hólmfríður Sigríðar Hannesdóttir, Harvard University**

**Title: ** Infrared Finite S-matrix elements and Cross Section

Room: A-050

Time: Tuesday 27th August, 2:00 pm

#### Abstract:

Quantum field theory (QFT) works remarkably well for making theoretical predictions in collider scattering experiments. One of the fundamental objects in these calculations, the scattering matrix (S-matrix), is inspired by a well defined operator in non-relativistic quantum mechanics, but is plagued with both ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) divergences in QFT. The UV divergences are now understood through the program of renormalization, but IR divergences remain an active area of research. Three approaches have been explored to define IR finite quantities, which will all be discussed in this talk: i) The cross section method, ii) modification of the S-matrix, and iii) the dressed state formalism. The minimal set of processes required for a finite cross section will be examined, along with the need for forward scattering and disconnected diagrams. We will furthermore explore how the usual assumptions about evolution of the scattering states at asymptotic times are broken in a theory with massless particles, and how the universality of the interactions leading to IR divergences in such theories can be exploited to define finite S-matrix elements.